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一、Installation and operation of elements

1、In order to keep furnace temperature and the load-bearing uniform of each element, before installation, resistance distribution must be carried out. The resistance value deviation of each group should be below 10%.

2、As the element is very brittle, be careful while istalling and maintaining to avoid any damage.

3、When starting to operate the furnace, raise voltage slowly and gradually, never give full load at one time,or the heating element will be damaged by over current impulse.

4、To use the elements, you should prepare the adjustable transformer or silicon contralled transformer,voltage meter, current meter and autocontrol temperature meter etc. During the working, the voltage should beincreased to maintain the furnace normal temperature because the resistance value will go up gradually causedby the oxidation of element. When the voltage get to the up limit of the transformer and the temperature is still low than the repuirement, the furnace should be stopped, change the way of wire connection and then continue to work.

5、In the course of long operation of the furnace, if any individual heating element is damaged owing to certain reasons and should be changed, you should replace it with proper one whose resistance value corresponds to that of the old one, never use a new heating element random. If the heating element is much damaged or its resistance value increases too much and cannot reach the furnace temperature, it is better to replace all the heating elements with new ones. Test and mark the resistance value of the old elements having been replaced(with vltmeter and ammeter) and distribute them in low temperature area.

6、Before the new furnace or the furnace that has not been used for a long time is used, they must be dried,When drying them, it is better to use old elements or other heat source.

7、When firing apparatus or material, if there is water ejection, the furnace should have holes to eject water vapor or other waste gases in order to protect the elements service life.

8、Water vapor can quicken the aging of elements. If there is water ejection, the furnace should have holes to eject water vapor or other waste gases in order to prolong the elements service life.

9、The working life of elements is long when used continuously while it is short when used intermittently.

10、Atmosphere control is important. The element becomes brittle to shorten the service life inhydrogen. The element can be corroded by alkali, alkaline metal, silicate and boride so the contact should be avoided.

二、Several power calculation ways for wire connection in common use